پخش زنده جام جهانی
کسی اینجا فاشیسته؟  چاپ
تاریخ : سه‌شنبه 16 اسفند‌ماه سال 1390

چهارده مشخصه ی فاشیسم

مطالب زیر برگرفته از مقاله دکتر لاورنس بریت با عنوان "کسی اینجا فاشیسته؟" که در مجله "فری انکوری" (جستار آزاد) در بهار 2003 چاپ شده، می باشد ایشان بر اساس تحقیق روی نظامهای تحت رهبری هیتلر (آلمان)، موسیلینی (ایتالیا)، فرانکو (اسپانیا)، سوهارتو (اندونزی) و حکومتهای بعضی از کشورهای آمریکای لاتین، به 14 مشخصه مشترک تعریف کننده ی این حکومتها می رسد این چهارده مشخصه بشرح زیر است

: From, *Fascism Anyone?,* Lawrence Britt, Free Inquiry, Spring 2003, page 20.

 *1- ملی گرایی، پررنگ، نمادین و همیشگی* *1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism *- Fascist regimes tend to make constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, and other paraphernalia. Flags are seen everywhere, as are flag symbols on clothing and in public displays

. * 2- تحقیر و چشمپوشی از حقوق بشر* *2. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights -* Because of fear of enemies and the need for security, the people in fascist regimes are persuaded that human rights can be ignored in certain cases because of "need." The people tend to look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, assassinations, long incarcerations of prisoners, etc.

 *3- تاکید بر دشمن (داخلی/خارجی) عاملی برای اتحاد دادن* *3. Identification of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause* - The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe: racial , ethnic or religious minorities; liberals; communists; socialists, terrorists, etc.

 *4- برتری و تسلط نیروهای نظامی** * *4. Supremacy of the Military -* Even when there are widespread domestic problems, the military is given a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda is neglected.  Soldiers and military service are glamorized

. *5- شیوع تبعیض جنسیتی* *5. Rampant Sexism - *The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Opposition to abortion is high, as is homophobia and anti-gay legislation and national policy.

 *6- رسانه عمومی تحت کنترل حاکمیت* *6. Controlled Mass Media -* Sometimes to media is directly controlled by the government, but in other cases, the media is indirectly controlled by government regulation, or sympathetic media spokespeople and executives. Censorship, especially in war time, is very common.

 *7- حساسیت شدید در مورد امنیت ملی* *7. Obsession with National Security -* Fear is used as a motivational tool by the government over the masses.

 *8- درهمپیچیدگی دین با حکومت* *8. Religion and Government are Intertwined -* Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. Religious rhetoric and terminology is common from government leaders, even when the major tenets of the religion are diametrically opposed to the government's policies or actions.

*9- حمایت از نیروهای صنعتی-تجاری وابسته* *9. Corporate Power is Protected - *The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist nation often are the ones who put the government leaders into power, creating a mutually beneficial business/government relationship and power elite.

 *10- سرکوب نیروی کار  (تشکلهای کارگری، کارمندی، اصناف و ...)* *10. Labor Power is Suppressed - *Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government, labor unions are either eliminated entirely, or are severely suppressed .

*11- تحقیر روشنفکری و هنر* *11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts - *Fascist nations tend to promote and tolerate open hostility to higher education, and academia. It is not uncommon for professors and other academics to be censored or even arrested. Free __expression in the arts is openly attacked, and governments often refuse to fund the arts.

 *12- وسواس و حساسیت در مورد جرائم و مجازات* *12. Obsession with Crime and Punishment - *Under fascist regimes, the police are given almost limitless power to enforce laws. The people are often willing to overlook police abuses and even forego civil liberties in the name of patriotism. There is often a national police force with virtually unlimited power in fascist nations.

*13- شیوع فساد و فامیلبازی* *13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption -* Fascist regimes almost always are governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each other to government positions and use governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability. It is not uncommon in fascist regimes for national resources and even treasures to be appropriated or even outright stolen by government leaders.

 *14- انتخابات دروغین* *14. Fraudulent Elections *- Sometimes elections in fascist nations are a complete sham. Other times elections are manipulated by smear campaigns against or even assassination of opposition candidates, use of legislation to control voting numbers or political district boundaries, and manipulation of the media. Fascist nations also typically use their judiciaries to manipulate or control elections.